September 25, 2011 at 4:31 am #29241
PRECURSOR NOTE:This is a fundamental understanding of networking itself, how it works. This is not intended to show you how to network together computers, but rather how the networking itself actually worksPart 1:bits & BYTESA computer can only understand, at the basic level, ones and zeros (1 and 0). Basically, if the processor has power, its a 1, if it doesn't, its a zero.A single 1 or 0 is called a *bit*Most programs don't deal with ones or zeros, they deal with larger numbers, so someone decided to put 8 bits together to make a byte, a byte is simply 8 ones or zeros in a row, like this:10010110a byte can represent a number from 0 - 255.this numbering system is called *binary* and its the base of all computing.Binary may seem complicated at first, but once you get familiar with it, you will see that its not all that complex.First, lets take a look at the normal, everyday numbering system, its called the decimal system, and it uses 10 different symbols to represent its numbers, so its called a base10 numbering system (decimal means 10)the symbols of the decimal numbering system are:0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9binary has two symbols, 0 and 1, so its a base2 system (binary, the bi means two).All numbering systems work in the same way, the first number (from right to left) is always the ones place, in the decimal system, thats a number from 0-9, in binary its 0-1.The second column is worth the base number, so in decimal, it would be 10 and in binary it would be 2.for a visual explanation:0 in binary = 0 in decimal1 in binary = 1 in decimal10 in binary = 2 in decimal11 in binary = 3 in decimaleach number places value in binary keep doubling, so from right to left the values go like this:1248163264128and so onto change from binary to decimal, you add up all the *ones* in their places. so a number like 10010110 would translate like this:10010110128 + 0 + 0 + 16 + 0 + 4 + 2 = 160You may be asking yourself what the numbers that your internet provider gives you mean a number like: 6Mbwell, the prefix (M) is a multiplier, im not sure what its actually called, but thats what i call it, it works like the Metric form of mesurementK = KiloM = MegaG = GigaT = Terathe suffix (b) represents the type of data that is being sent, a little b ALWAYS represents bits, and a big B ALWAYS represents Bytes, It's important to note that people can get confused if you mix them up, and the difference in speed or amounts is 8x, so its a big deal.The prefix is also important, the multiplier in Binary is 1024 (NOT 1000) so 1KB(1KiloBytes) is 1024Bytes andSeptember 25, 2011 at 4:39 am #33486
Part 2:TCP & UDPMost of you probably wont know what TCP and UDP are, sure you may have HEARD of them, but you dont know what they mean, what they do, or what the differance is.Tcp and UDP are two networking Protocols.Tcp (Transmission Control Protocol) is the more widely used of the two and provides a very consistent quality of data, it checks the incoming data to make sure its not corrupt, while at the same time it also causes the protocol to be slightly slower.UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a much faster protocol, but its also less reliable, it does NOT check the data that it receives, so it often doesn't get complete or valid packets.They both have places where they should be used, and places where they should not, an example.VoIP Services (Voice over IP) Services, which allow you to talk to someone else over the internet need to use TCP to maintain a quality conversation, if you lose a couple of packets of VoIP data, then you likely will not be able to understand what the other person just said.Video Services, which stream video over the internet should use UDP for two reasons, one: it will save bandwidth and two: if you lose a couple of packets of a video stream you may get an artifact or two in your video (artifacts are the little squares of color that appear or are misplaced), Generally this won't depreciate the quality of the video, and is ignored.September 25, 2011 at 4:48 am #33487
Part 3:Data TypesAt this point, you may be wondering how larger number are sent over the network, or even how text is sent, what about pictures? or dates?Well, each of those has its own unique way of being sent over the internet, and yet, they each have a core similarity as well. All the data types must be broken down into a binary stream to be sent over the network.For starters, you know that numbers that range from 0-255 (a byte) can be sent over the network simply as a series of ones and zeros.if you put two of those "bytes" together you get what we call a "short" which is 16 bits long and has a range of 0-65535I dont have time to finish this post at the moment, so i will continue it when i returnSeptember 29, 2011 at 5:15 pm #33488
In the world of computers, networking is the practice of linking two or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data. Networks are built with a combination of computer hardware and computer software. Some explanations of networking found in books and tutorials are highly technical, designed for students and professionals, while others are geared more to home and business uses of computer networks.May 15, 2012 at 5:39 am #33489
This has been really an insightful… thanks for sharing…February 6, 2013 at 11:35 am #33490
It is never been so easy to have information of networking fundamentals to every common man. This is the same with me. I like the post presented here but I am not able o understand technical aspect of this fundamental.March 28, 2013 at 6:14 am #33491
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